Australia: The Land Where Time Began

A biography of the Australian continent 

Climate                                        Climate cycles     Climate in Aboriginal Australia     RealClimate: Climate Science from Climate Scientists 

Australia is the driest continent on Earth (if Antarctica is excluded because its millions of tonnes of water are in the form of ice or snow). Its climate is very erratic, often moving from one extreme directly to the other. It can have years of drought that is broken by devastating floods. This erratic climate has been found to be influenced very strongly by the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) atmosphere-ocean system and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD).

It has been said that the only thing predictable about the climate of the arid areas of Australia, 3/4 of the continent, is that it is unpredictable. In such a place the very flatness of the majority of the continent turns out to be of importance to the survival of many plants and animals in times of long droughts, which occur often and irregularly. Because of this overall flatness, any high points, from rock outcrops to desert mountain ranges, tend to collect and store more water for longer periods than the surrounding flat land, where it tends to run off, infiltrate to the deep water table or evaporate within a short time of the end of the rainfall. From rock outcrops to gorges in mountain ranges, the water collected is at least partially protected from the worst of the conditions of the surrounding flat land where any surface water  rapidly evaporates.

The plants and animals of Australia have been very strongly influenced by the climate. Both have adapted to survive, as a species if not always as individuals, in very harsh environments in many parts of the continent. The plants of a particular area may have to cope with poor soils, often low and unpredictable water availability, variable climate including droughts of variable and unpredictable length, and occasional floods, and a wide range of temperatures.

The geological feature that influences the climate of Australia most strongly is the absence of sufficiently high mountain ranges west of the Great Dividing Range running north-south near the east cost of the continent. It is not high as mountain ranges go, but is high enough to force winds crossing it to rise high enough to lose some of their moisture as rain, or in the southern states in winter, snow.

Climate change as Australia broke from Antarctica

Prior to the separation of South America and Australia from Antarctica, cold currents flowing along the Antarctic coast were diverted north to the tropics when they struck the west coasts of South America and Australia, returning south to Antarctica after they had been heated by their passage through the equatorial regions, taking that heat south to warm Antarctica. These warming currents were disrupted by the opening of the ocean between Antarctica and South America and Australia, allowing the polar regions to become a progressively colder closed climatic system. The southern parts of Australia became cooler, and the latitudinal temperature gradients steepened, and the climatic zones became more pronounced. The movement of Australia north gradually moved the central and northern parts of the continent away from the moist westerly winds, and into the region of the drier, warmer subtropical high pressure systems (Bowler, 1982; Bowman, 2000).

The zone is dominated by the belt  of high pressure around the Earth, composed of series of high pressure systems that move from west to east near the latitude of 30o S that is about 3000 km wide. In summer these high pressure systems cover the southern parts of the continent and by winter they have moved north to the central regions. The area they cover at any particular time experiences mostly clear skies, the descending air being dry. The increasing aridity of the Australian continent as it moved north is a result of this dry air.

A band or westerly winds is located immediately to the south if the high pressure zone. Fronts and depressions in this band of westerly winds are areas where the air pressures are locally lower, the air in the lower atmosphere converging and ascending, any contained water vapour then condenses as the rising air mass cools, which occurs as it rises, until the water coalesces into rain drops which fall as rain when they reach a sufficient mass to overcome the updraft tending to push them higher. In the winter rain parts of southern Australia it is these mid-latitude systems that bring the rain, usually moving from west to east.

The southeast trade winds occur immediately to the north of the high pressure belt. These winds converge with the northeast trades of the Northern Hemisphere to form the inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ), a belt where the rising warm air containing large amounts of moisture lead to the heavy rain of the tropics. The ITCZ moves from north to south of the equator in the Australian summer and back again in the Australian winter, as it tracks the movements of the sun in relation to the Earth, being over the latitudes of northern Australia in the Southern Hemisphere summer and over the areas to the north of the Equator in the Australian winter. During summer there is a low pressure trough that remains continuously over northern Australia, the monsoon season that is hot and wet. The southeast trade winds can bring rain to the east coast of the continent at any time of the year, the moist air rising to cross the Great Dividing Range, which runs the full length of the continent, from Cape York to Tasmania, the moisture being condensed into rain as the air rises. The amount of rain brought by these winds is the result of the water temperature along the east coast of the continent, the warmer the water the higher the evaporation rate and the warmer the air the more water vapour it can hold, hence the potential problems when the oceans are warming.

Both the tropical and mid-latitudes are subject to substantial variability, many rainy weather types being recognised. In the tropical north cyclones often bring heavy rain to the northern coast, in the south, in addition to the normal frontal systems, low pressure systems that originate in the mid-latitudes can be cut-off from the westerlies, often moving slowly while dumping large amounts of rain. The presence of hills or range in an area influences the rain it receives from rain-bearing winds, depending on the direction of flow of the winds in relation to the high ground. In southeastern Australia the western slopes of high ground receive much of their rain from bands of cloud ahead of northwesterly fronts.

The moist southwesterly streams following fronts bring rain to western Tasmania, southern Victoria and the far southwest of Western Australia. Low pressure systems, that can originate in either tropical or mid-latitude regions, situated off the east coast can bring heavy rain to the east coast of New South Wales via the associated onshore easterlies.

In the arid interior of the continent rainfall is usually connected with strong tropical systems that penetrate southward, or the passage of strong fronts, and in winter by 'cut-off' lows.

Variability of the climate

The Byrd Ice Core, the first ice core to be drilled to bedrock in Antarctica, through 2164 m of ice, 99 % of the core being recovered, was drilled through the ice at Byrd Station, Antarctica . It contained a record of atmospheric concentrations of methane that proved a picture of the fluctuations of global climate through much of the last glacial cycle (Blunier & Brook, 2001). The high concentrations are believed to have been from warm, wet periods, when methane is believed to have been produced in tropical wetlands that would be expanding at these times. The evidence from this core confirms the results from other lines of evidence that during the last glacial cycle there were many short-term fluctuations on scales of about 1,000 years. These fluctuations were most dramatic in the middle part of the last cycle, settling down as the LGM (last glacial maximum) approached, so that the climate was very stable between about 28,000 to 20,000 years ago. Sediment cores from the lake bed that formed on the Carpentaria Plain at times of low sea level also show a climatically calm period at the LGM, the fine structure of the sediments indicating that there were few intense storms to disturb them as they were being deposited (De Dekker, 2001). Reconstructions of sea surface temperatures of the ocean around Australia indicate there was little variation of temperature between seasons, seasonal variability being less than at present (Barrows & Juggins, 2005).

  1. A 950 Year Reconstruction of Temperature from Duckhole Lake, southern Tasmania
  2. A 6,000 Year Record of Tropical Cyclones in Western Australia
  3. The 100,000 Year Problem and the Synchronisation of the Climate System to Eccentricity Forcing
  4. The 8,200 Year Event - Links East Asian Monsoon & Climate of the North Atlantic
  5. Amundsen Sea Shelf Break – Oceanographic Observations
  6. Abnormal Upwelling and Concentration of Chlorophyll-a off South Vietnam in August 2007
  7. Abrupt Change in Atmospheric Co2 During the Last Ice Age
  8. Abyssal Ocean Warming and Salinification Following Weddell Polynyas in GDFL CM2G Coupled Climate Models
  9. Antarctica - Role in Global Environment
  10. Antarctic Bottom Water - Freshening and Warming 1980s-2000s
  11. Antarctic Bottom Water Produced by intense formation of Sea-Ice in the Cape Darnley Polynya
  12. Antarctic Cold Reversal - Glacier Advance in Southern Middle-latitudes
  13. Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) and Future Changes Under Warming Scenarios – Representation in CMIP5 Climate Models
  14. Antarctic Circumpolar Current - Response to recent Climate change
  15. Antarctic Climate Change and Environment - Deep-Time, the Geological Dimension
  16. Antarctic Climate Change and Environment - The Holocene
  17. Antarctic Climate Change and Environment - Changes During the Instrumental Period
  18. Antarctic Climate Change and Environment - Next 100 Years
  19. Antarctic Dry Valleys – Formation of Thermokarst in the McMurdo Dry Valleys
  20. Antarctic and Greenland Ice Sheets - Acceleration of their Contribution to Sea Level Rise
  21. Antarctic Sea Ice
  22. Antarctic Sea Ice Expansion - Important role of Ocean Warming and Increased Ice-Shelf Melt
  23. Antarctic Surface Waters - Abrupt Cooling and Sea Ice Expansion in the Southern Ocean, South Atlantic Sector at 5,000 Cal Yr BP
  24. Antarctica - Persistent Wind Scour influence on Surface Mass Balance
  25. Antarctica - Ice Flow Sensitivity of Pine Island Glacier to Geothermal Heat Flux
  26. Antarctica, Larsen C Ice Shelf, Basal Crevasses – Implications of meltwater ponding and Hydrofracture
  27. Antarctica - Pine Island Glacier, subglacial melt channels & Fracture in Floating Part
  28. Antarctica - Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica, Sustained Glacier Retreat
  29. Antarctica – Thwaites Glacier Basin, West Antarctica, Marine Ice Sheet Collapse Potentially Underway
  30. East Antarctica - Abrupt Climate Warming in the Early Holocene
  31. East Antarctic Ice Sheet - Dynamic Behaviour During the Pliocene Warmth
  32. East Antarctica - Relative Sea-Level Rise During Oligocene Glaciation
  33. Antarctic and Greenland Ice Cores Directly Linked at the Toba Eruption - 74 ka BP
  34. The West Antarctic Ice Shelf warming from beneath
  35. West Antarctica - Recent Changes in Climate and Ice Sheet Compared to the Past 2000 Years
  36. Antarctic Sea-Ice Expansion - Important role of Ocean Warming and Increased Ice-Shelf Melt
  37. Antarctic Weathering and Carbonate Compensation at the Transition from the Eocene to the Oligocene
  38. Aptian Mystery Solved – Ontong Java Plateau Eruption Suggested to Have Promoted Climate Change and Ocean Anoxia Expansion
  39. Anthropogenic Contributions to the Australian Record Summer Temperatures of 2013
  40. Arctic Methane
  41. Arctic Methane Release – Global Impact
  42. Arctic Sea Ice Heated from Below
  43. Arctic Surface Snowpacks - Molecular Bromine, Photochemical Production
  44. Arctic Warming – 2 Distinct Influences on Cold Winters Above North America and East Asia
  45. Arid Australia - a Fresh Framework for its Ecology
  46. Asian Connections
  47. Arctic Surface Snowpacks - Molecular Bromine, Photochemical Production
  48. Atlantic Ocean CO2 uptake reduced by weakening meridional overturning circulation (AMOC)
  49. Atlantic Ocean - Northeast Circulation Impacted by Mesoscale Polar Storms
  50. The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) - Driving Processes
  51. Atlantic Ocean - Multiple Causes for Equatorial Surface Interannual Temperature Variability
  52. Atlantic Ocean - Tropical Warm Events
  53. Atlantic Overturning Circulation – Recent Slowing as a Recovery from Earlier Strengthening
  54. North Atlantic Climate During the Last Glacial Period - Links with Tropical Rainfall
  55. North Atlantic Forcing of Amazonian Precipitation During the Last Ice Age
  56. North Atlantic Millennial-Scale Climate Variability - A 0.5 My Record
  57. North Atlantic Stadials Linked to Failure of the Deglacial Indian Monsoon by Surface Cooling in the Indian Ocean
  58. Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide - A 300-Million-Year record from Plant Cuticles
  59. Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Levels from the Distant Past to the Present
  60. Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Linked to Climate Change in the Mesozoic and Early Cainozoic
  61. Atmospheric Susceptibility to Wildfire - the Last Glacial Maximum and Mid-Holocene
  62. Austral Summer Teleconnections of Indo-Pacific Variability - Nonlinearity and Impacts on the Climate of Australia
  63. Australian regional rainfall decline has been attributed to anthropogenic greenhouse gases and ozone
  64. Australian Temperate Zone Climate Records for the Past 30,000 years – Oz-INTIMATE Workgroup
  65. Bψlling Transition – Global climate Changes Near-Synchronous in Ice Core Record
  66. The Unique Influence of Australia on the Global Sea Level in 2010-2011
  67. Biocrust-Forming Mosses – Mitigating Negative Impacts on Dry-Land Ecosystem Multifunctionality of Impacts of Increasing Aridity
  68. Brinicles
  69. Temperature Variability on a continental scale over the Past 2 Millennia
  70. Terrestrial Carbon Cycle - Fingerprints of Changes in Response to Large Ocean Circulation Reorganisation
  71. Carbon Fluxes from Land to Ocean - Anthropic Perturbations
  72. Carbon Release Rate at Present are Unprecedented During the Last 66 Million Years
  73. Carbon Sequestration in Deep Atlantic During Last Glaciation
  74. Marine Carbon Sequestration – Substantial Role of Macroalgae
  75. Carnian Humid Episode, Late Triassic – A Review
  76. Central Western Antarctica - One of the world's Most Rapidly Warming Regions
  77. Climate - The Atlantic Ocean
  78. Climate - The Pacific Ocean
  79. Climate Change - The Atlantic Ocean
  80. Sea Surface Temperature in the Long-term and Climate Change in the Australian and New Zealand region
  81. Climate Change
  82. Climate Change in Australia - Vertebrates of Quaternary Rainforests Response
  83. Cooper Creek - Climate Change and Aeolian-Fluvial Interaction and Development of Source-Bordering Dunes over the Past 100 ka
  84. Climate - multiple controls
  85. Climate Change - Patterns of Tropical Warming
  86. Climate Change and Variability on a Milankovitch scale - Its Impact on Monsoonal Australasia in the Late Quaternary
  87. Climate Change Science – Attribution of Causes
  88. Climate Change Science - The Berkeley Earth Surface Temperature Study – BEST
  89. Climate Change Science - The Effects of Rising Temperatures on Human Health
  90. Climate Change Science – Energy Budget of the Earth – the Basics
  91. Climate Change Science – Energy Imbalance of the Earth
  92. Climate Change Science – Human Activities and Global Warming
  93. Climate Change Science - Increasing Temperature of the Ocean
  94. Climate Change Science – Land Temperatures – Boreholes
  95. Climate Change Science – Melting Ice
  96. Climate Change Science – Permafrost, Methane and Clathrates
  97. Climate Change Science - Plant and Animal Migration
  98. Climate Change Science - Radiation Laws Affecting the Earth
  99. Climate Change Science – Rising Sea Levels
  100. Climate Change Science – Trends
  101. Climate Change - The Roles of Physical processes in the Tropical Tropopause Layer
  102. Climate Change - Slow Feedbacks
  103. Climate Change - Very Rapid Changes
  104. Climate Controls of the Present in the Southwest Pacific
  105. Climate Emergency - Introduction
  106. Climate Feedback
  107. Climate Variability - Natural Modes
  108. Climate Variability on a Millennial Scale During the 2 past Glacial Periods
  109. Climate Sensitivity to Cumulative Carbon Emissions Due to Ocean Heat and Carbon Uptake
  110. Convective and Stratiform Precipitation – Proportions Revealed in Water Isotope Ratio
  111. Cooling of Eurasian Winters Over Last 25 Years Not Likely to Be Due to Loss of Arctic Sea-Ice
  112. East Siberian Arctic Shelf Waters Acidification by Freshwater Addition and Terrestrial Carbon
  113. Projected Timing of the Departure of Climate from Recent Variability
  114. Transient Climate Response – Declining Uncertainty as CO2 Forcing Dominates Climate Change into the Future
  115. Drought, Groundwater Storage and Declining Stream Flow in Southwestern Australia
  116. Polar Amplification of Climate Change Confirmed by the Warmth of the Arctic in the Last Interglacial
  117. Climate Networks Evolving 
  118. Climate Swings of the Pleistocene in Australia
  119. The Cryogenian
  120. Calibrating the Cryogenian
  121. The Cryogenian Datangpo Formation, South China - Reconstruction of Palaeo-Redox Conditions and Early Sulphur Cycling
  122. Cryogenian-Ediacaran Transition - Organic Carbon Isotope Constraints on the Dissolved Organic Carbon (Doc) Reservoir
  123. Late Cryogenian – Extreme Ocean Anoxia Recorded in Reefal Carbonates in Southern Australia
  124. Cryogenian Glaciation - Onset of Carbon-Isotope Decoupling
  125. The Trezona δ13C Anomaly Beneath the Glaciation of the End-Cryogenian - Constraints of the Origin and Relative Timing
  126. The Cryosphere
  127. The Cryosphere - Biosphere Interactions
  128. The Cryosphere - The Geography of Snow and Ice on Earth
  129. The Cryosphere - Glaciers & Ice Sheets
  130. The Cryosphere - Albedo of Snow and Ice
  131. The Cryosphere - Effects on the Hydrological Cycle
  132. The Cryosphere - Interaction between Ocean and Ice  
  133. The Cryosphere - Influence on Circulation of the Atmosphere
  134. The Cryosphere - As a Latent Energy Buffer
  135. The Cryosphere - Permafrost
  136. Decoupling of Air-Sea Temperature in Western Europe During the Interglacial-Glacial Transition
  137. Deep-sea CaCo3 sedimentation - Response to Shutdown of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC)
  138. Deglacial Warming – Oceanic Denitrification Acceleration
  139. Drought, Groundwater Storage and Declining Stream Flow in Southwestern Australia
  140. Early Triassic Climate
  141. El Niρo – Amplification by Cloud Long-Wave Coupling to Circulation of the Atmosphere
  142. El Niρo/Southern Oscillation Influence on tornado and hail frequency in the United States
  143. A World that has Warmed by 2oC Will Not Be Safe For the European Alps Ecosystem System Services
  144. Late Permian Mass Extinction - Recovery Impeded by Multiple Greenhouse Crises in the Early Triassic
  145. Early Triassic - the Smithian - Lethally Hot Temperatures
  146. Elatina Formation
  147. Eemian Interglacial Reconstruction from a folded Greenland Ice Core
  148. End-Permian Mass Extinction - climatic and Biotic Upheavals 
  149. Glacial-Interglacial Bottom Water Oxygen Content Changes on the Portuguese Margin
  150. Last Glacial to Holocene Dust Changes at Talos Dome, East Antarctica - Interpretations & implications for Atmospheric Variations - Regional to Hemisphere Scales
  151. Glaciation on Baltica in the Late Neoproterozoic - the Timing Constrained by Detrital Zircon from Geochronology in the Hedmark Group, Southeast Norway
  152. Glacial Maximum in Australia
  153. Glaciers – Substantial mass Loss in the Tien Shan over the past 50 Years
  154. Global Drought Changes in the 21st Century – Magnitude and Causes Under a Low-Moderate Emissions Scenario
  155. Global Ocean Climate Change
  156. Global Warming - Patterns of Seasonal Response of Tropical Rainfall
  157. Global Warming - the Difficulty of Recovering from Dangerous Levels
  158. Global Warming Hiatus – Distinct Energy Budgets for Anthropogenic and Natural Changes
  159. Greenland Ice Flow for the international Polar Year 2008-2009
  160. Greenland Ice Sheet – Melting at the Base Explained by the History of Iceland Hotspot
  161. Greenland Ice Sheet – Velocity Structure Changes
  162. Greenland’s Marine Terminating Glaciers – Changes to Understanding the Dynamic Response to Oceanic and Atmospheric Forcing
  163. West Greenland – Undercutting of Marine-Terminating Glaciers
  164. Northeast Greenland Soils – Net Regional Methane Sink in the High Arctic
  165. Greenland Interstadials and the Younger Dryas-Preboreal Transition: Early-Warning Signals for the Onsets  
  166. Greenland Temperature Anomalies - Origin of Multidecadal to Centennial Scales Over the Last 800 Years  
  167. Groundwater Resources of southwestern Australia Potential Climate Change Impacts
  168. Early Oxidation - great Oxidation Event
  169. Heinrich Events, Massive Detritus Layers from the Late Pleistocene in the North Atlantic -Their Global Climate Imprint
  170. Heinrich Event 4 Characterised in Southwestern Europe by the Use of Terrestrial Proxies
  171. Holocene Changes in Australian-Indonesian Monsoon Rainfall - Stalagmite Evidence from Trace element & Stable Isotope Ratios
  172. Early Holocene – Climatic and Environmental Changes about 11.5-8 cal. ka BP
  173. Hypoxia by degrees - Establishing Definitions for Oceans that are Changing
  174. Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation and its Modulation of the ENSO-Precipitation Teleconnection
  175. Intensification of Convective Extremes Driven by Interaction Between Clouds
  176. Jakobshavn Isbrae – Acceleration Triggered by Warm Subsurface Ocean Waters
  177. Possible Global Ice Volume Changes and Geomagnetic Excursions and Earth Orbital Eccentricity
  178. Trends in the Global Jet Stream Characteristics Observed in the Latter Half of the 20th Century
  179. Phanerozoic Climate Modes
  180. During the Transition from the Last Interglacial to the Last Glacial Air-Sea Decoupling Occurred in Western Europe
  181. The Last Glacial Period – Climatic and Environmental Changes 30-20 Cal. ka BP
  182. Last Glacial Period Termination – Climatic and Environmental Changes 20-11.5 Cal. ka BP
  183. Last Glacial Termination Sources of Methane - Measurements of Methane in Greenland Ice
  184. The Last Interglacial – Australian Deserts
  185. The Last Interglacial - lakes and saltlakes
  186. The Last Interglacial – Lake Eyre – A Continental Rain Gauge
  187. The Last Interglacial – Other Inland Lakes
  188. The Last Interglacial – The Arid Rivers
  189. The Last Interglacial – Desert Dunes and Dust
  190. The Last Interglacial – Inland Vegetation
  191. The Last Interglacial – Last of the Dryland Megafauna
  192. The Katapiri Fauna Collapse
  193. Overview – The Desert Before People - Interglacial Landscapes
  194. Landscape of Colonisation
  195. Marine Carbon Sequestration – Substantial Role of Macroalgae
  196. Methane Emissions Proportional to Carbon from Permafrost Thawed in Arctic Lakes Since the 1950s
  197. Methane- Shifting Atmospheric Sources
  198. Northwestern Australia and East Africa – A Deglaciation Event in the Early Permian between these 2 Landmasses
  199. Early Oxidation - Great Oxidation Event (GOE)
  200. Seasonal extremes over Australia - Influence of Climate Variability
  201. Southern Ocean - Shifting Westerlies
  202. Submarine End Moraines on the Continental Shelf Off NE Greenland - Implications for Lateglacial Dynamics
  203. The Great Oxidation Event - Evolution of Multicellularity Coincided with an Increase of Cyanobacterial Diversification
  204. The Great Oxidation Event - More Oxygen Through Multicellularity
  205. Holocene Western Alps Glacier Culmination - Their hemispheric relevance
  206. Early Holocene Ice-Sheet Decay, Rising Sea Level and Abrupt Climate Change
  207. Hydrogen Peroxide Production by in planktonic microorganisms by UV-B
  208. Ice Age Australia
  209. Jet Stream
  210. NASA aircraft probe Namibian clouds to solve global puzzle
  211. Polar Wander Linked to Climate Change
  212. Possible Global Ice Volume Changes and Geomagnetic Excursions and Earth Orbital Eccentricity
  213. Indo-Pacific Warm Pool - Oscillation in its Southern Extent During the Middle Holocene
  214. PETM – Rapid, Sustained Acidification of the Ocean Surface
  215. Short-Lived Halogens – Efficiency at Influencing Climate Through Stratospheric Ozone Depletion
  216. Late Palaeocene Thermal Maximum
  217. Terminal Eocene Event
  218. Terminal Miocene Event
  219. Tropical Western Pacific - A 4 Ma record of Thermal Evolution - Implications for Climate Change
  220. Wandering Australia
  221. The West Antarctic Ice Shelf warming from beneath
  222. West Antarctica Warming Rapidly
  223. The Great Journey North
  224. Timeline of Boundaries-Palaeocene to Miocene
  225. The Innamincka Regime
  226. The Potoroo Regime
  227. Australian Palaeoclimate and Palaeogeography for the Tertiary
  228. Australian Palaeoclimate and Palaeobotany for the Tertiary
  229. Cenozoic Carbon Cycle
  230. Cenozoic Climate
  231. Cause of Decoupling Between Solar Radiation and Temperature - the Evidence
  232. Mid-Cretaceous Supergreenhouse - Drastic Shrinking of the Hadley Circulation
  233. Stop-and-Go Deglaciation
  234. Collapse of Prehistoric Aboriginal Society in Northwestern Australia Triggered by an ENSO Mega-Drought 
  235. ENSO - Impact of Maximum Temperature Extremes
  236. ENSO affected by Sothern High Latitude Cooling During the Medieval Period
  237. El Niρo/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Dominates Coastal Vulnerability Across the Pacific
  238. Ocean Acidification – Emergence from Pre-Industrial Levels
  239. Oxygen Decline Accelerated in the Tropical Pacific over the Past Decades by Aerosol Pollutants
  240. Palaeocene climate
  241. Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) – Palaeohydrologic Response to Continental Warming, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming
  242. Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM)
  243. Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum – 2 Massive Carbon Releases During the Onset of the PETM
  244. Permafrost carbon - Catalyst for deglaciation
  245. Pliocene El Niρo-like Atmospheric Circulation in the Western US
  246. Oceans and the Climate
  247. Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 - Lithium Isotope Evidence of Enhanced Weathering
  248. Ocean-Warming hotspot - Geographic Range Shifts Explained by Species Traits and Climate Velocity
  249. Oligocene Climate
  250. Kimberly Region, Western Australia, Glaciation in the Late Neoproterozoic - an 17O
  251. Marinoan Snowball Earth Glaciation – Ice Sheet Fluctuations that were Orbitally Forced
  252. Methane Leakage over Widespread Areas of the Seafloor on the Atlantic Margin of Northern US
  253. Miocene climate
  254. Mid-Miocene Climate Optimum (MMCO)
  255. Mini Ice Ages –  Prediction of Solar Activity Cycles on Millennium Time Scale from Principal Component Analysis
  256. Mountain Uplift and Global Cooling
  257. Ningaloo Niρo Related to a Rainfall Predictability Interdecadal Regime Shift in the 1990s
  258. North Tropical Atlantic Surface Temperature a Trigger for Enso Events
  259. Northwest Australia – Evidence for Synchrony of marine and terrestrial ecosystems that is driven by climate
  260. Nuccaleena Formation, South Australia - Testing Models for Post glacial Deposition of 'Cap Dolostone'
  261. Oceanic Ice Shelf Melting – the Effect of Basal Channels
  262. The Response of Northern Hemisphere Glaciers to Past Climate Warming
  263. Patagonian Icefields, South America, Ice Motion 1984-2014
  264. Palaeoproterozoic Ice Houses - Evolution Oxygen-Mediating Enzymes, Late Origin of Photosystem II
  265. Permafrost carbon - Catalyst for deglaciation
  266. Permian System of Eastern Australia - Atmospheric CO2 Response to Glacial Growth & Decay in Late Palaeozoic Ice Age
  267. Permian & Triassic Greenhouse Crises
  268. Phanerozoic Climate Modes
  269. Phanerozoic Climate Modes - The Cool and Warm Modes
  270. Pine Island Glacier Ice Shelf Melt Distributed at Kilometre Scale
  271. The Invasion of the Land by Plants in the Devonian Caused Climate Change
  272. Tectonism, Climate and Geomorphology
  273. Pliocene climate
  274. Pleistocene Climate
  275. Quaternary Climate
  276. Range Increase of Precipitation Between the Wet and Dry Season
  277. Rapid Climate Change Events
  278. Rapid Climate Change Events (RCCEs) "Rickies" in the Holocene
  279. A Rossby Wave Bridge Connecting West Antarctica to the Tropical Atlantic Ocean
  280. Rossby Waves Mediate Impacts on West Antarctic Atmospheric Circulation of Tropical Oceans
  281. Seafloor Grooves Record Sea Level Changes During Ice Ages
  282. Snowball Earth - Atmospheric Hydrogen Peroxide and Oxygenic Photosynthesis Origin
  283. Snowball Earth - an Interglacial? Dynamic Behaviour of Ice in the Chuos Formation, Namibia
  284. Storm activity - the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age
  285. Snowball Earth - Evidence of Low 18O Magmatism During Rifting of a Supercontinent in South China
  286. Snowball Earth - Was it Actually a Profound Wintry Mix
  287. Snowball or Slushball Earth
  288. South Pacific Gyre “Spin-Up” Extending Understanding by Modelling the East Australian Current in a Future Climate
  289. Solar Activity – A Prediction that it will Decrease by 60% in the 2030s, ‘Mini Ice Age’ Levels Because Sun is Driven by Double Dynamo
  290. Southern Hemisphere Hadley Cell, Expansion in Response to Forcing by Greenhouse Gas
  291. Southern Ocean CO2 Sink Saturation Due to Recent Climate Change
  292. Southern Ocean Eddies Imprint on Winds, Clouds and Rainfall
  293. Tasman Sea Climate Change Projection from an Eddy-Resolving Ocean Model
  294. Triassic climates — State of the art and perspectives
  295. The 2oC Climate Change Target – A Scientific Critique
  296. The Southern Ocean - Recent Ventilation Changes
  297. A sulphidic Sea in the Late Archaean Stimulated by Early Oxidative Continental Weathering
  298. Synchronization of cycles in the Arctic and the Antarctic
  299. Teleconnections of Austral Summer in Variability in the Indo-Pacific - Nonlinearity and Impacts on the Australian Climate
  300. Terrestrial Permafrost – the Threat from Thawing
  301. Toba Eruption 74 ka BP – Direct Linking between Ice Cores from Greenland and Antarctica
  302. Totten Glacier, East Antarctica - Ocean Access to a Cavity Beneath it
  303. Totten Glacier – Inland Bed Erosion Indicates Repeated Retreat on a Large Scale
  304. The Younger Dryas
  305. Tidewater Glaciers – Scalings for Submarine Melting from Buoyant Plume Theory
  306. Global Tropical Forests – Seasonality Constrained by Hydroclimate
  307. Early Younger Dryas - Variations of atmospheric 14C Derived from Tree Rings
  308. Volcano-Sedimentary Record of Africa, India and Australia - Evidence of Global and Local Sea Level and Continental Freeboard Changes
  309. Pine Island Bay, West Antarctica – Ice Cavity Water Export
  310. The Wet, Cool Summer in Southeast Australia – 2010-2011


The Climate Now

The Australian climate is influenced by several main weather systems related to regular patterns in the oceans and the atmosphere.

Rainfall is brought to northern Australia by the north-west monsoon, and in most years, by cyclones that deliver large amounts of water to mostly coastal areas. Along the east coast rain increases when La Nina is active, when the trade winds in the Pacific ocean push warm water towards the Australian coast, and decreases when El Nino events slow or stop the trade winds, sending the warm water east away from the Australian coast. This is why El Nino brings drought to eastern Australia. It has been assumed that the La Nina events would bring drought-breaking rain to the southern parts of Australia as well. But it has now been realised that this hasn't been happening. While the coasts of New South Wales and Queensland were being deluged by rain brought by La Nina, large areas of Victoria were still in drought.

Queensland weather forecasters have been watching what they believed to be the return of El Nino, but an unexpected finding recently has been that unlike previous El Nino events in which the warm water moves to the east towards South America, it appears that the accumulating warm water stretches across the equatorial Pacific, a confusing situation for forecasters, being unable to predict with confidence what the weather is likely to be, wet or dry.

Indian Ocean Dipole - IOD

Researchers are finding that the trade winds in the Pacific seem to be weakening. If they do weaken further that would lead to a lowering of pressure in the western Pacific, so less power to force the warm water that feeds the Leeuwin Current. They are also seeing what they believe is a change in the IOD that could be leading to a state in which the cool positive phase could be the dominant condition. As if that wasn't enough, the temperatures over Australia have risen by 1o C, drying the continent out even more.

Whether part of a natural cycle or man-made, climate change is beginning to bite in Australia, and the continent is set to be affected more significantly and earlier than other continents. Yet another first for Australia.

Climate Cycles

Tropical Cyclones

Looking at the past to see the future

Climate scientists have been studying ocean sediments searching for C13/C12 isotope ratio anomalies which indicate times when increased amounts of C12-rich carbon is added to the oceans/atmosphere. The correlation of such an anomaly with the Late Palaeocene Thermal Maximum about 55 Ma has been found. It is known that there are many places on the continental shelves around the world where there are large deposits of methane clathrate that has the potential to cause catastrophic climate change if released in sufficient quantities over a sufficiently short time.

The Southern Annular Mode (SAM)

This is a weather system based in Antarctica that has been found to affect the climate of southern Australia, by controlling the strength of the westerly winds that cover the ocean to the south of the Southern Hemisphere continents, including Australia. The SAM determines how far north the westerly winds reach, the further north, the greater the winter rainfall over southern parts of Australia.

The belt of strong westerly winds contracts towards Antarctica in the positive part of the cycle, expanding north, hopefully over southern Australia, in the negative mode. In the positive mode there is reduced autumn and winter rainfall over southern Australia, especially the southern part of Western Australia. The resulting higher pressures over the southern parts of Australia lead to fewer storm systems reaching Australia.

This weather pattern has been found to be conspiring with the IOD to bring the long severe drought to southern Western Australia and western Victoria.

Sources & Further reading

  1. Mary E. White, After the Greening, The Browning of Australia, Kangaroo Press, 1994
  2. Chris Johnson, Australia's Mammal Extinctions, a 50,000 year history, Cambridge University Press, 2006
  3. Peter Whetton in Webb, Eric K, (1997), Windows on Meteorology, Australian Perspective, CSIRO Publishing.


  1. Atlantic 'weather bomb' opens new window on Earth's interior
  2. The La Nina of 2010-2011 and its impact on Australia
  3. Climate Code Red - The case for Action at Emergency Speed
  4. Methane Leaks off the East Siberian Coast, Speeding Climate Change
  5. Hey, Permafrost: Put a Lid on It
  6. Ice Once Covered the Equator
  7. LiveScience Image Gallery
  8. Bird Ice Core Microparticle and Chemistry Data
  9. CO2 record in the Byrd ice core 50,000-5,000 BP
  10. Ice Core Paleoclimatology Research Group
  11. Ice-core evidence of abrupt climate changes
  12. A 25,000-Year Tropical Climate History from Bolivian Ice Cores
  13. Abrupt tropical climate change-past and present
  14. Geochronology and stratigraphy of late Pleistocene lake cycles on the southern Bolivian altoplano-implications for causes of tropical climate change
  15. Abrupt Climate Change at the End of the Last Glacial Period Inferred from Tropical Air in Polar Ice
  16. Climate change and the tropical Pacific-the sleeping dragon wakes
  17. Fine-resolution pollen record of late-glacial climate reversal from New Zealand
  18. As climate changes, so do glaciers
  19. Global enhancement of ocean anoxia during Oceanic Anoxic Event 2-a quantitative approach using U isotopes
  20. Clouds may hold the key to why the early earth didn't freeze over
  21. Quiet sun puts Europe on ice
  22. Glacier melt threatens West Antarctic ice sheet
  23. Global Warming Part 1 - Ignore the debate, look at the Earth
  24. Climate Kelpie
  25. Wind speed and ocean wave height rising
  26. Cosmic Rays and Climate 
  27. Target Atmospheric CO2: Where Should Humanity Aim?
  28. Supporting Material for Target Atmospheric CO2: Where Should Humanity Aim?
  29. Target Atmospheric CO2: Where Should Humanity Aim? + Supplementary Material
  30. PETM Weirdness
  31. A millennial proxy record of ENSO and eastern Australian rainfall from the Law Dome ice core, East Antarctica
  32. Evolving Climate Networks
  33. Rapid Variability of Seawater Chemistry Over the Past 130 Million Years
  34. Evidence of Recent Causal Decoupling between Solar Radiation and Global Temperature
  35. Climate change could trigger 'tipping point' for East Antarctica Totten Glacier


Author: M. H. Monroe
Last updated:

Catalyst - 100 years of Australian climate records


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