Cryosphere Climate Links
- Sandells, M. and D. Flocco (2014). Permafrost. Introduction to
the Physics of the Cryosphere, Morgan & Claypool Publishers:
Permafrost is a term used to describe ground that has
been at a temperature of 0 °C or below for two or more years.
Although commonly thought of as applying to land, this can also
refer to the seabed. Knowledge of the distribution and state of the
permafrost is important for infrastructure.
- Sandells, M. and D. Flocco (2014). Sea ice. Introduction to the
Physics of the Cryosphere, Morgan & Claypool Publishers: 5-1-5-15.
Sea ice covers the polar oceans for most of the year. Its extent
varies noticeably between seasons: its size varies between 6–14
million square km in the Arctic and 3–19 million square km in the
Antarctic. The two poles are very different: the Arctic Ocean is
surrounded by land, therefore the maximum size that sea ice can grow
is limited and constricted by the land. In contrast, the Antarctic
is a continent covered by an ice sheet a few kilometres thick and
surrounded by oceans, so sea ice growth is not physically
- Nuimura, T., et al. (2015). "The GAMDAM glacier inventory: a
quality-controlled inventory of Asian glaciers." The Cryosphere
- Reuter, B., et al. (2015). "A process-based approach to estimate
point snow instability." The Cryosphere 9(3): 837-847.
- Sakai, A., et al. (2015). "Climate regime of Asian glaciers
revealed by GAMDAM glacier inventory." The Cryosphere 9(3): 865-880.
- Malinka, A., et al. (2016). "Reflective properties of white sea
ice and snow." The Cryosphere 10(6): 2541-2557.
Sources & Further