Australia: The Land Where Time Began

A biography of the Australian continent 

  my                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Sources and further reading - Many from the bibliographies of the sources for my site                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      

Adam, Paul, 1994, Australian Rainforests, Oxford Biogeography Series No.6, Oxford University Press.
M.Archer, S.J. Hand & H. Godthelp in Hill, Robert S., (ed.), 1994, History of the Australian Vegetation, Cambridge University Press.
Mary E White, 2000, Running Down, Water in a Changing Land, Kangaroo Press
Mary E.White, The Greening of Gondwana, the 400 Million Year story of Australian Plants, Reed, 1994
Mary E White, After the Greening, The Browning of Australia, Kangaroo Press, 1994
Mary E. White, 1993, The Nature of Hidden Worlds: Animals and plants in prehistoric Australia and New Zealand, Reed
Mary E. White, Listen...Our Land is Crying, Kangaroo Press, 1997
Mary E. White, Earth Alive, From Microbes to a Living Planet, Rosenberg Publishing Pty. Ltd., 2003
Twidale, C.R. & Campbell, E.M., 2005, Australian Landforms: Understanding a Low, Flat, Arid, and Old Landscape, Rosenberg Publishing Pty Ltd
Aitken, A.R.A. & Betts, P.G., 2008, GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 35, L01306, doi:10.1029/2007GL031563, 2008
Allen, H. ed., 2010, Australia: William Blandowski's Illustrated Envyclopaedia of Aboriginal Australia, Aboriginal Studies Press.
Allen. J & O'Connell, J.F., 2003, The long and the short of it: archaeological approaches to determining when humans first colonised Australia and New Guinea, Australian Archaeology, No. 57, 2003
Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio, The Origin of the Amerindians and the Peopling of the Americas according to HLA genes: Admixture with Asian and Pacific People, Current Genomics, April 2010.
Benton, Michael J., 2005, Vertebrate Palaeontology, 3 rd ed., Blackwell Publishing.
Buckley, R, 1983, Soils and Vegetation of Australia's Arid Dune Fields. p. 37-8. In Masters, J & Mosley, G. (eds), What future for Australia's arid lands?Australian Conservation Foundation, Melbourne.
Michael Archer, Suzanne J. Hand & Henk Godthelp, 2000, Australia's Lost World: Riversleigh, world heritage Site, Reed New Holland
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Long, John A., 1995, The Rise of Fishes - 500 Million years of Evolution, University of New South Wales Press/
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Tectonophysics Volume 394, Issues 3-4, Pages 139-233 (10 December 2004)

Kinematic nature and origin of regional-scale ductile shear zones in the central Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia  ARTICLE
Pages 139-153 She Fa Chen, John W. Libby, Stephen Wyche and Angela Riganti

Paul Willis & Abbie Thomas, Digging up Deep Time, ABC Books
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Ross A. Bradstock, Jann E. Williams, A. Malcolm Gill, editors, Flammable Australia, The Fire Regimes and Biodiversity of a Continent, Cambridge University Press, 2002
David Lindenmayer, Mason Crane and Damian Michael, Woodlands, a disappearing landscape, CSIRO Publishing, 2005
Richard J. Hobbs and Colin J. Yates, Temperate Eucalypt Woodlands in Australia, Surrey Beatty & Sons, 2000
I. M. turner, The Ecology of Trees in Tropical Rain Forests, Cambridge University Press,, 2001
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Chris Johnson, Australia's Mammal Extinctions, a 50,000 year history, Cambridge University Press, 2006
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Breakup and early seafloor spreading between India and Antarctica

Gaina, Carmen, R. Dietmar Müller, Belinda Brown, Takemi Ishihara, and Sergey Ivanov. "Breakup and Early Seafloor Spreading between India and Antarctica." Geophysical Journal International 170, no. 1 (2007): 151-69.


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Further reading

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Álvaro, J. Javier. "Colour Banding in a Latest Neoproterozoic–Cambrian Microbially Variegated Sabkha of the Taoudeni Basin, Adrar of Mauritania." Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 367–368, no. 0 (12/15/ 2012): 209-18.
Álvaro, J. Javier, and Françoise Debrenne. "The Great Atlasian Reef Complex: An Early Cambrian Subtropical Fringing Belt That Bordered West Gondwana." Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 294, no. 3–4 (8/15/ 2010): 120-32.
Aubet, Natalie R., Ernesto Pecoits, Andrey Bekker, Murray K. Gingras, Horst Zwingmann, Gerardo Veroslavsky, Héctor de Santa Ana, and Kurt O. Konhauser. "Chemostratigraphic Constraints on Early Ediacaran Carbonate Ramp Dynamics, Río De La Plata Craton, Uruguay." Gondwana Research 22, no. 3–4 (11// 2012): 1073-90.
Avigad, D., A. Gerdes, N. Morag, and T. Bechstädt. "Coupled U–Pb–Hf of Detrital Zircons of Cambrian Sandstones from Morocco and Sardinia: Implications for Provenance and Precambrian Crustal Evolution of North Africa." Gondwana Research 21, no. 2–3 (3// 2012): 690-703.
Ballèvre, M., S. Fourcade, R. Capdevila, J. J. Peucat, A. Cocherie, and C. Mark Fanning. "Geochronology and Geochemistry of Ordovician Felsic Volcanism in the Southern Armorican Massif (Variscan Belt, France): Implications for the Breakup of Gondwana." Gondwana Research 21, no. 4 (5// 2012): 1019-36.
———. "Geochronology and Geochemistry of Ordovician Felsic Volcanism in the Southern Armorican Massif (Variscan Belt, France): Implications for the Breakup of Gondwana." Gondwana Research 21, no. 4 (5// 2012): 1019-36.
Cai, Yaoping, Hong Hua, and Xingliang Zhang. "Tube Construction and Life Mode of the Late Ediacaran Tubular Fossil Gaojiashania Cyclus from the Gaojiashan Lagerstätte." Precambrian Research 224, no. 0 (1// 2013): 255-67.
———. "Tube Construction and Life Mode of the Late Ediacaran Tubular Fossil Gaojiashania Cyclus from the Gaojiashan Lagerstätte." Precambrian Research 224, no. 0 (1// 2013): 255-67.
Chen, Zhe, Chuanming Zhou, Mike Meyer, Ke Xiang, James D. Schiffbauer, Xunlai Yuan, and Shuhai Xiao. "Trace Fossil Evidence for Ediacaran Bilaterian Animals with Complex Behaviors." Precambrian Research 224, no. 0 (1// 2013): 690-701.
Clites, Erica C., Mary L. Droser, and James G. Gehling. "The Advent of Hard-Part Structural Support among the Ediacara Biota: Ediacaran Harbinger of a Cambrian Mode of Body Construction." Geology 40, no. 4 (April 1, 2012 2012): 307-10.
Cox, Grant M., Christopher J. Lewis, Alan S. Collins, Galen P. Halverson, Fred Jourdan, John Foden, David Nettle, and Fayek Kattan. "Ediacaran Terrane Accretion within the Arabian–Nubian Shield." Gondwana Research 21, no. 2–3 (3// 2012): 341-52.
Derry, Louis A. "A Burial Diagenesis Origin for the Ediacaran Shuram–Wonoka Carbon Isotope Anomaly." Earth and Planetary Science Letters 294, no. 1–2 (5/15/ 2010): 152-62.
Fan, Haifeng, Hanjie Wen, Xiangkun Zhu, Ruizhong Hu, and Shihong Tian. "Hydrothermal Activity During Ediacaran–Cambrian Transition: Silicon Isotopic Evidence." Precambrian Research 224, no. 0 (1// 2013): 23-35.
———. "Hydrothermal Activity During Ediacaran–Cambrian Transition: Silicon Isotopic Evidence." Precambrian Research 224, no. 0 (1// 2013): 23-35.
———. "Hydrothermal Activity During Ediacaran–Cambrian Transition: Silicon Isotopic Evidence." Precambrian Research 224, no. 0 (1// 2013): 23-35.
Fike, D. A., J. P. Grotzinger, L. M. Pratt, and R. E. Summons. "Oxidation of the Ediacaran Ocean." Nature 444, no. 7120 (12/07/print 2006): 744-47.
———. "Oxidation of the Ediacaran Ocean." Nature 444 (// 2006): 744-47.
Frei, R., C. Gaucher, L. N. Døssing, and A. N. Sial. "Chromium Isotopes in Carbonates — a Tracer for Climate Change and for Reconstructing the Redox State of Ancient Seawater." Earth and Planetary Science Letters 312, no. 1–2 (12/1/ 2011): 114-25.
Grey, K. "Ediacaran Palynology of Australia." 2005.
———. "Ediacaran Palynology of Australia." 1-439: Nature Publishing Group, 2005.
Grey, Kathleen, and Clive R. Calver. "Ediacaran Oxidation and Biotic Evolution." Nature 450, no. 7170 (11/29/print 2007): E17-E17.
Hoffmann, K.-H., D.J. Condon, S.A. Bowring, and J.L. Crowley. "U-Pb Zircon Date from the Neoproterozoic Ghaub Formation, Namibia: Constraints on Marinoan Glaciation." Geology 32, no. 9 (September, 2004 2004): 817-20.
Husson, Jon M., Adam C. Maloof, and Blair Schoene. "A Syn-Depositional Age for Earth’s Deepest Δ13c Excursion Required by Isotope Conglomerate Tests." Terra Nova 24, no. 4 (2012): 318-25.
Janikian, Liliane, Renato Paes De Almeida, Ricardo Ivan Ferreira Da Trindade, Antonio Romalino Santos Fragoso-Cesar, Manoel Souza D′Agrella-Filho, Elton Luis Dantas, and Eric Tohver. "The Continental Record of Ediacaran Volcano-Sedimentary Successions in Southern Brazil and Their Global Implications." Terra Nova 20, no. 4 (2008): 259-66.
Janikian, Liliane, Renato Paes de Almeida, Antonio Romalino Santos Fragoso-Cesar, Veridiana Teixeira de Souza Martins, Elton Luiz Dantas, Eric Tohver, Ian McReath, and Manoel Souza D'Agrella-Filho. "Ages (U–Pb Shrimp and La Icpms) and Stratigraphic Evolution of the Neoproterozoic Volcano-Sedimentary Successions from the Extensional Camaquã Basin, Southern Brazil." Gondwana Research 21, no. 2–3 (3// 2012): 466-82.
Jiang, Ganqing, Xinqiang Wang, Xiaoying Shi, Shuhai Xiao, Shihong Zhang, and Jin Dong. "The Origin of Decoupled Carbonate and Organic Carbon Isotope Signatures in the Early Cambrian (Ca. 542–520&#Xa0;Ma) Yangtze Platform." Earth and Planetary Science Letters 317–318, no. 0 (2/1/ 2012): 96-110.
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Central West Antarctica among the Most Rapidly Warming Regions on Earth

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This work was financially supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) through
grant ATM-0751291. The Antarctic Meteorological Research Center, provider of the
AWS observations, is supported by the NSF Office of Polar Programs through grant
ANT-0838834. We thank H. Brecher, R. Fogt, C. Genthon, T. Wilson and S-H. Wang for
their insight/assistance at various stages of this work. We are also grateful to S. Colwell
(British Antarctic Survey) for maintaining the READER database. This is contribution
1428 of the Byrd Polar Research Center.
Author contributions
D.H.B., J.P.N. and A.J.M. designed the research. D.H.B. and J.P.N. performed the
temperature reconstruction and wrote the paper. D.H.B., J.P.N. and A.B.W. analysed the
results. M.A.L., L.M.K. and G.A.W. tested the AWS hardware and provided corrected
AWS data. All authors commented on the manuscript.
Additional information
Supplementary information is available in the online version of the paper. Reprints and
permissions information is available online at Correspondence
and requests for materials should be addressed to D.H.B.
Competing financial interests
The authors declare no competing financial interests.

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"Eemian Interglacial Reconstructed from a Greenland Folded Ice Core." Nature 493, no. 7433 (01/24/print 2013): 489-94.

The 8,200 Year Event - Links East Asian Monsoon & Climate of the North Atlantic

Liu, Y. H., G. M. Henderson, C. Y. Hu, A. J. Mason, N. Charnley, K. R. Johnson, and S. C. Xie. "Links between the East Asian Monsoon and North Atlantic Climate During the 8,200 Year Event." Nature Geosci 6, no. 2 (02//print 2013): 117-20.

Multiple Causes of Interannual Sea Surface Temperature Variability in the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean

Richter, Ingo, Swadhin K. Behera, Yukio Masumoto, Bunmei Taguchi, Hideharu Sasaki, and Toshio Yamagata. "Multiple Causes of Interannual Sea Surface Temperature Variability in the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean." Nature Geosci 6, no. 1 (01//print 2013): 43-47.

The Impact of Polar Mesoscale Storms on Northeast Atlantic Ocean Circulation

Condron, Alan, and Ian A. Renfrew. "The Impact of Polar Mesoscale Storms on Northeast Atlantic Ocean Circulation." Nature Geosci 6, no. 1 (01//print 2013): 34-37.

Hydrothermal and Resedimented Origins of the Precursor Sediments to Banded Iron-Formation: Sedimentological Evidence from the Early Palaeoproterozoic Brockman Supersequence of Western Australia

Krapez, B., M. E. Barley, and A. L. Pickard. "Hydrothermal and Resedimented Origins of the Precursor Sediments to Banded Iron-Formation: Sedimentological Evidence from the Early Palaeoproterozoic Brockman Supersequence of Western Australia." Sedimentology 50 (// 2003): 979-1011.

The Lopingian of Australasia - A Review

Shi, G. R., J. B. Waterhouse, and S. McLoughlin. "The Lopingian of Australasia: A Review of Biostratigraphy, Correlations, Palaeogeography and Palaeobiogeography." Geological Journal 45, no. 2-3 (2010): 230-63.

Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide - A 300-Million-Year record from Plant Cuticles

Retallack, G. J. "A 300-Million-Year Record of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide from Fossil Plant Cuticles." Nature 411 (// 2001): 287-90.

Lake Baraba - A Vegetation & Fire History Going Back More Than 43,000 Years

Black, M. P., S. D. Mooney, and H. A. Martin. "A &Gt;43,000-Year Vegetation and Fire History from Lake Baraba, New South Wales, Australia." Quaternary Science Reviews 25, no. 21–22 (11// 2006): 3003-16.

8,200 year event (8.2 Ky Event)

Liu, Y. H., G. M. Henderson, C. Y. Hu, A. J. Mason, N. Charnley, K. R. Johnson, and S. C. Xie. "Links between the East Asian Monsoon and North Atlantic Climate During the 8,200 Year Event." Nature Geosci 6, no. 2 (02//print 2013): 117-20.

Nicolussi, Kurt, and Christian Schlüchter. "The 8.2 Ka Event—Calendar-Dated Glacier Response in the Alps." Geology 40, no. 9 (September 1, 2012 2012): 819-22.

Antarctic Cold Reversal - Glacier Advance in Southern Middle-latitudes

Putnam, Aaron E., George H. Denton, Joerg M. Schaefer, David J. A. Barrell, Bjorn G. Andersen, Robert C. Finkel, Roseanne Schwartz, et al. "Glacier Advance in Southern Middle-Latitudes During the Antarctic Cold Reversal." Nature Geosci 3, no. 10 (10//print 2010): 700-04.

Holocene Western Alps Glacier Culmination - Their hemispheric relevance

Schimmelpfennig, I., J.M. Schaefer, N. Akçar, S. Ivy-Ochs, R.C. Finkel, and C. Schlüchter. "Holocene Glacier Culminations in the Western Alps and Their Hemispheric Relevance." Geology 40, no. 10 (October 1, 2012 2012): 891-94.

Dark Survival in a Warmer Climate

McMinn, A., and A. Martin. "Dark Survival in a Warming World." Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 280, no. 1755 (March 22, 2013 2013).

McNamara, K & Murray, P., May 2013, Prehistoric Mammals of Western Australia, Western Australia Museum

Anderson, John B., 1999, Antarctic Marine Geology, Cambridge University Press   

Marshall, Shawn J., 2012, The Cryosphere, Princeton University Press

Smith, Mike, 2013, The Archaeology of Australia's Deserts, Cambridge World Archaeology Series, Cambridge University Press

Twidale, C.R., 2007, Ancient Australian Landscapes, Rosenberg Publishing Pty. Ltd. , NSW

Huston, David L. Blewett, Richard S. & Champion, David C., March 2012, Australia through time: a summery of its tectonic and metallogenic evolution. Geoscience Australia.

Eriksson, P. G., R. Mazumder, S. Sarkar, P. K. Bose, W. Altermann, and R. van der Merwe. "The 2.7–2.0 Ga Volcano-Sedimentary Record of Africa, India and Australia: Evidence for Global and Local Changes in Sea Level and Continental Freeboard." Precambrian Research 97, no. 3–4 (9// 1999): 269-302.

Winkelmann, Daniel, Wilfried Jokat, Laura Jensen, and Hans-Werner Schenke. "Submarine End Moraines on the Continental Shelf Off Ne Greenland – Implications for Lateglacial Dynamics." Quaternary Science Reviews 29, no. 9–10 (5// 2010): 1069-77.

Marshall, Shawn J., 2012, The Cryosphere, Princeton University Press.

  1. Anderson, John B., 1999, Antarctic Marine Geology, Cambridge University Press
  2. Earth Observatory

Anderson, John B., 1999, Antarctic Marine Geology, Cambridge University Press 

Lewis, Sophie C., and David J. Karoly. "Anthropogenic Contributions to Australia's Record Summer Temperatures of 2013." Geophysical Research Letters 40, no. 14 (2013): 3705-09.

Boger, Steven D. "Antarctica — before and after Gondwana." Gondwana Research 19, no. 2 (3// 2011): 335-71.

Cooper, A., and C. B. Stringer. "Did the Denisovans Cross Wallace's Line?". Science 342, no. 6156 (October 18, 2013 2013): 321-23.

Lordkipanidze, David, Marcia S. Ponce de León, Ann Margvelashvili, Yoel Rak, G. Philip Rightmire, Abesalom Vekua, and Christoph P. E. Zollikofer. "A Complete Skull from Dmanisi, Georgia, and the Evolutionary Biology of Early Homo." Science 342, no. 6156 (October 18, 2013 2013): 326-31.

Lordkipanidze, David, Abesalom Vekua, Philip G. Rightmire, Ann Margvelashvili, 2007, Hominid Fossils from Dmanisi and Their Place Among the Early Hominids, Bull. Georg. Natl. Acad. Sci.

Cane, Scott, 2013, First Footprints: The epic story of the first Australians, Allen & Unwin.

Scott Cane has included in his book, written as a companion to the ABC TV series of the same name, a number of stories from his days living among Aboriginal people in the desert and moving around with them.



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