Australia: The Land Where Time Began

A biography of the Australian continent 

Cryosphere Climate Links

  1. Sandells, M. and D. Flocco (2014). Permafrost. Introduction to the Physics of the Cryosphere, Morgan & Claypool Publishers: 2-1-2-9.
    Permafrost is a term used to describe ground that has been at a temperature of 0 C or below for two or more years. Although commonly thought of as applying to land, this can also refer to the seabed. Knowledge of the distribution and state of the permafrost is important for infrastructure.
  2. Sandells, M. and D. Flocco (2014). Sea ice. Introduction to the Physics of the Cryosphere, Morgan & Claypool Publishers: 5-1-5-15.
    Sea ice covers the polar oceans for most of the year. Its extent varies noticeably between seasons: its size varies between 614 million square km in the Arctic and 319 million square km in the Antarctic. The two poles are very different: the Arctic Ocean is surrounded by land, therefore the maximum size that sea ice can grow is limited and constricted by the land. In contrast, the Antarctic is a continent covered by an ice sheet a few kilometres thick and surrounded by oceans, so sea ice growth is not physically constrained.
  3. Nuimura, T., et al. (2015). "The GAMDAM glacier inventory: a quality-controlled inventory of Asian glaciers." The Cryosphere 9(3): 849-864.
  4. Reuter, B., et al. (2015). "A process-based approach to estimate point snow instability." The Cryosphere 9(3): 837-847.

  5. Sakai, A., et al. (2015). "Climate regime of Asian glaciers revealed by GAMDAM glacier inventory." The Cryosphere 9(3): 865-880.
  6. Malinka, A., et al. (2016). "Reflective properties of white sea ice and snow." The Cryosphere 10(6): 2541-2557.

Sources & Further reading



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