Australia: The Land Where Time Began

A biography of the Australian continent 

Out of Africa vs Regional Continuity                                                                                      

The 2 main theories of the evolution of modern humans are the Out of Africa Hypothesis (The Noah's Ark  model) and the Regional Continuity Hypothesis (the candelabra model). Both agree that the migrants left from the Africa, they differ on when and whether the previous populations of Eurasia were replaced or interbreeding took place with existing populations of H. erectus

The Out of Africa Hypothesis

Turkana newcomer -> Sangiran -> Ngandong
                              -> Zhaoukoudian
                              -> Petralona -> Dali & Neandertthal
                              -> Kabwe    -> Omo/Kibush -> Mungo -> Australoid
                                                                            -> Liujiang -> Mongoloid
                                                                            -> Cro-Magnon -> Caucasoid
                                                                            -> Iwo Eleru -> Negroid

The Regional Continuity Hypothesis

Turkana newcomer -> Sangiran -> Ngandong -> Mungo -> Australoid
                              -> Zhaoukoudian -> Dali -> Liujiang -> Mongoloid
                              -> Petralona -> Neanderthal -> Cro-Magnon -> Caucasoid 
                              -> Kabwe - Omo/Kibish -> Iwo Eleru -> Negroid

These suggested tables are based on diagrams in Guran Burenhult, 2003

The basis of the Out of Africa theory is mtDNA, the The Regional Continuity theory is based on skeletal material.

The Eve theory

Sources & Further reading

  1. Josephine Flood, Archaeology of the Dreamtime, J. B. Publishing
  2. Phillip J. Habgood & Natilie R. Franklin, The revolution that didn't arrive: A review of Pleistocene Sahul, Journal of Human Evolution, 55, 2008
  3. Goran Burenhult (general editor), Peoples of the Past, the Illustrated History of Human Kind, Vol 1, Fog City Press, 2003


  2. Not Out of Africa but regional continuity
  3. Turkana
  4. Turkana
  5. Human Evolution
  6. Evolution-Out of Africa and the Eve Hypothesis (Chris Stringer)


Author: M. H.Monroe
Last Updated 30/09/2011
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